Jewish ethnographic expedition of S. A. An-sky.
Boys spent in the cheder the whole day, from the morning prayer to the evening one. A break of one or two hours was provided around midday. On Friday the melamed (teacher) checked the pupils’ knowledge. Children at fault were punished with birch-rods.
If there were quite many schoolboys in the cheder, the melamed had an assistant who also performed the duties of a guardian of order.